Controlled pyrolysis or gasification

OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MATTER

Tecam’s controlled pyrolysis

Controlled pyrolysis or gasification is the process by which organic matter is partly oxidised. The oxygen content is regulated, with less than the stoichiometric amount added in order to be able to control the combustion process. The operating temperature is usually higher than it is for pyrolysis (750 °C) owing to the fact that partial oxidation takes place, which generates energy and increases the temperature inside the kiln

This process also generates syngas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen. Additionally, it generates solid waste and inert, non-combustible materials such as heavy metals.

Where is this technology applied, and what are its advantages?

These systems are used to treat urban waste, plastics and sewage sludge.

It represents the first phase in the combustion process and is intended to achieve gasification (i.e. extract the volatile compounds from the waste) so that it is easier to oxidise the waste in the second oxidation chamber.

At the same time, it also generates syngas, which can then be used to produce energy and/or reused in other processes.

What does the process consist of?

  • Pre-treatment: this may consist of drying or other preparatory measures.
  • Input device: this is a series of valves that make it possible to control the feeding of the waste. The main purpose of this device is to allow the waste to enter while preventing air from entering the kiln from outside.
  • Rotary or static kiln: this kiln has a cylindrical, horizontally positioned body that rotates on its axle, allowing the solid waste inside to decompose.
  • Air intake fan: this controls the amount of oxygen. It usually operates on the basis of 30 % of the stoichiometric amount, i.e. only the stoichiometric amount of oxygen required to oxidise 30 % of the waste is added.
  • Extraction of ash and fixed carbon: the waste material contains a certain amount of compounds that cannot be gasified, and generate ash and fixed carbon (char) as a result. Furnaces must be fitted with a device to extract these waste materials, cool them and send them on to be treated.
Pyrolysis04

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